After focused study and training, players use controlled air-direction to create an airstream in which the air is aimed downward into the tone hole of the flute's headjoint. Instruments made according to an older pitch standard, used principally in wind-band music, include D♭ piccolo, soprano flute (the primary instrument, equivalent to today's concert C flute), F alto flute, and B♭ bass flute. They are often made of the same types of materials, usually look similar to one another, and produce sound in comparable ways. and the yüeh in the 8th century b.c. Circular breathing is a technique whereby musicians can breathe in through the nose and push air out through the mouth, enabling them to produce a continuous sound through the instrument. [42][43] The airstream creates a Bernoulli or siphon. The fipple gives the instrument a distinct timbre which is different from non-fipple flutes and makes the instrument easier to play, but takes a degree of control away from the musician. The piccolo / ˈ p ɪ k ə l oʊ / (Italian pronunciation: ; Italian for "compact", but named ottavino in Italy) is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. [clarification needed]. Head joint geometry appears particularly critical to acoustic performance and tone,[45] but there is no clear consensus on a particular shape amongst manufacturers. [29] Scientists have also suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.[27]. Choose from Flute Family sheet music for such popular songs as Beale Street Blues - Piano Accompaniment, Charleston - Piano Accompaniment, and Beale Street Blues - C Instrument. There are also modern wooden-bodied flutes usually with silver or gold keywork. A playable 9,000-year-old Gudi (literally, "bone flute") was excavated from a tomb in Jiahu along with 29 defunct twins,[31] made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes with five to eight holes each, in the Central Chinese province of Henan. As such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute (a word used in some translations of this biblical passage). The researchers involved in the discovery officially published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009. [50], The quality of the flute's sound depends somewhat on the specific bamboo used to make it, and it is generally agreed that the best bamboo grows in the Nagercoil area of South India. [7][8], The cross flute (Sanscrit: vāṃśī) was "the outstanding wind instrument of ancient India," according to Curt Sachs. The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk (from the Geißenklösterle cave, near Ulm, in the southern German Swabian Alb and dated to 30,000 to 37,000 years ago)[30] was discovered in 2004, and two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier (from the same cave in Germany, dated to circa 36,000 years ago) are among the oldest known musical instruments. However, some flutes, such as the whistle, gemshorn, flageolet, recorder, tin whistle, tonette, fujara, and ocarina have a duct that directs the air onto the edge (an arrangement that is termed a "fipple"). This means that the concert flute is one of the highest common orchestra and concert band instruments. The first, the Bansuri (बांसुरी), has six finger holes and one embouchure hole, and is used predominantly in the Hindustani music of Northern India. Instrument Families in Music The instrument families are made up of four main families: woodwinds, brass, strings, and percussion. Conventional flutes are blown with the mouth, although some cultures use nose flutes. How to play The sound is made by blowing a stream of air over the mouthpiece (known as an embouchure hole), and pressing down on the instrument's keys. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quotation cited by the Oxford English Dictionary. One Armenian musicologist believes the sring to be the most characteristic of national Armenian instruments.[57]. "Bulgaria §II: Traditional Music, 2: Characteristics of Pre-Socialist Musical Culture, 1800–1944, (iii): Instruments". [35] Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the "musical texts" provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument (assumed to be a Babylonian lyre). This article is about the whole family of side-blown, end-blown, vessel, and duct instruments. The English verb flout has the same linguistic root, and the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings. There are several different means by which flautists may breathe in order to blow air that flows through the instrument to produce sound. It is made of wood or cane, usually with seven finger holes and one thumb hole,[56] producing a diatonic scale. Instrument Families: String, Brass, Woodwind, PercussionMuch like our families, instruments share some similarities and differences. There are several broad classes of flutes. The flute was an important part of these groupings. Scroll down the page to see all of the instruments. During this period, Italian and Netherlands flute makers experimented with the size of the flute's bore, added an E flat tone hole and divided the flute into sections that made storage and travel easier. By 1600, plucked and bowed instruments were combined with flute in mixed consort music. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. In this film, Samuel Coles introduces his instrument - the flute. (2004). This changes the pitch by opening and closing holes on the instrument, creating higher or lower notes. The bamboo flute is an important instrument in Indian classical music, and developed independently of the Western flute. 1750–57, Pair of ivory flutes by Johann Wilhelm Oberlender, mid 18th century, Nuremberg, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flute&oldid=999159653, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2020, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz instrument identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Paper authored by Avinash Balkrishna Patwardhan unveiling the fundamental principles governing Indian classical music by research on Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra at the National Symposium on Acoustics (1998), ITC Sangeet Research Academy, Calcutta, India. For example, the piano has strings that vibrate, and hammers that strike. The flute has also always been an essential part of Indian culture and mythology,[38] and the cross flute believed by several accounts to originate in India[39][40] as Indian literature from 1500 BCE has made vague references to the cross flute. Saron A musical instrument of Indonesia, ... Tar An Iranian long-necked, waisted lute family instrument, ... Flute A small, cylindrical woodwind instrument, usually made of silver, that is held sideways to the mouth. Smooth Classics with Margherita Taylor [32] The characteristic structure consists of an enclosed sound chamber, or resonator, with strings passing over all or part of it, and a neck along which the strings… The bamboo flute played vertically is called the xiao (簫), which is a different category of wind instrument in China. ), "flute. Presently, the eight-holed flute with cross-fingering technique is common among many Carnatic flutists. An embouchure hole is positioned near the top across and into which the flutist blows. 4.8 out of 5 stars 118 $13.95 $ 13 . Musical instruments are grouped into families based on how they make sounds. The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. [35], The Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". [36] Elsewhere in the Bible, the flute is referred to as "chalil" (from the root word for "hollow"), in particular in 1 Samuel 10:5, 1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12 and 30:29, and Jeremiah 48:36. The recorder is a family of woodwind musical instruments in the group known as internal duct flutes—flutes with a whistle mouthpiece, also known as fipple flutes. The second, the Venu or Pullanguzhal, has eight finger holes, and is played predominantly in the Carnatic music of Southern India. With a length of 30 cm, the piccolo resounds loudly in the performer's right ear when the instrument is played. The instruments have an audio file to listen to the instrument sound. Alto and tenor saxophone reeds Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments. The contrabass, double contrabass, and hyperbass are other rare forms of the flute pitched two, three, and four octaves below middle C respectively. It dates from 433 BC, of the later Zhou Dynasty. Most are made of bamboo, but can come in wood, jade, bone, and iron. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. This excites the air contained in the usually cylindrical resonant cavity within the flute. Download 'Slovak Suite - At Church' on iTunes. Maclagan, Susan J. Is it a string instrument or a percussion instrument? It has a buzzing membrane that gives it a unique timbre. It is the next extension downward of the C flute after the flûte d'amour. [28] On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". [26] The discovery was also the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history,[27] until a redating of flutes found in Geißenklösterle cave revealed them to be even older with an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years. Common examples include flute, clarinet, oboe, saxophone, and bassoon. "[36], Some early flutes were made out of tibias (shin bones). Varying the air flow into the instrument can affect the pitch, volume, and type of sound created. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. The piccolo is pitched an octave higher than the flute and produces a shrill, high-pitched sound. [11] Transverse flutes entered Europe through Byzantium and were depicted in Greek art about 800 A.D.[12] The transverse spread into Europe by way of Germany, and was known in Europe as the German flute. Flutes with multiple resonators may be played one resonator at a time (as is typical with pan pipes) or more than one at a time (as is typical with double flutes). INSTRUMENTS IN THE FLUTE FAMILY. Other articles where Lute family is discussed: stringed instrument: Lutes: …in the world is the lute (the word is used here to designate the family and not solely the lute of Renaissance Europe). Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. Flutes may be open at one or both ends. Download sheet music for Flute Family. For the flute commonly used in orchestras, chamber music, wind ensembles/concert bands, military bands, and marching bands, see, Musical instrument of the woodwind family, Chinese women playing flutes, from the 12th-century. The modern piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute, but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written. A rarer instrument of the modern pitching system is the G treble flute. It is the most prominent duct flute in the western classical tradition. [14] The first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. Range A standard flute (otherwise known as a treble flute) has a range starting on middle C, and can play around three octaves. [23][24] In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany. [9] He said that religious artwork depicting "celestial music" instruments was linked to music with an "aristocratic character. [15][22], The oldest flute ever discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago. The woodwind family of Instruments by Green Bean's Music.This video is from our musical instrument family series for kids. Acoustic impedance of the embouchure hole appears the most critical parameter. [55], The sring (also called blul) is a relatively small, end-blown flute with a nasal tone quality[56] found in the Caucasus region of Eastern Armenia. Flutes are divided into so-called true flutes and whistle flutes (also called duct flutes, fipple flutes, block flutes, or recorders). Its pitch is changed by … "A musical instrument of the flute or whistle class, in which the tone is produced by a stream of air… Flute Bore open and cylindrical, the only in which the vibratory motion is produced from a lateral mouth-hole.… Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing, compiled and edited by Confucius, according to tradition. Brass [41], A flute produces sound when a stream of air directed across a hole in the instrument creates a vibration of air at the hole. These flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. Piccolo Pitched in C Lowest note that can be played is a below the staff D ... are necessary for a particular piece of music (Marche Des Parachutistes Belges by … The earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi (篪) flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. [53] Some people can also play pair of flutes (Jodiyo Pavo) simultaneously. The ocarina, xun, pan pipes, police whistle, and bosun's whistle are closed-ended. End-blown flutes should not be confused with fipple flutes such as the recorder, which are also played vertically but have an internal duct to direct the air flow across the edge of the tone hole. The piccolo plays an octave higher than the regular treble flute. Other English terms, now virtually obsolete, are fluter (15th–19th centuries)[19][20][21] and flutenist (17th–18th centuries). Thus, the vertically held recorder was also called a "flute." Instruments can also be played together to create yet more sounds and harmonies. Andrea Bocelli accompanies himself on the flute in this stunning performance of ‘Dolce, Shaquille O'Neal and Jimmy Fallon: a musical analysis of their Random Instruments, Lizzo the hip-hop flautist is bringing classical music to new audiences – and we’re, Lizzo the hip-hop flautist is bringing classical music to new audiences – and we’re here for it, Brass and wind musicians are 16 per cent more likely to suffer respiratory illness, A construction worker played his Native American flute on a building site… and the, This piece is called the ‘Nightmare Concerto’, and this amazing recorder quartet will, An old piano was being dumped, so this guy gave it one, The time Princess Diana casually sat at a piano and, The utterly joyous sound of a ukulele orchestra playing, Morricone’s ‘The Good, the Bad and the Ugly’, Alicia Keys impressively paints a canvas just by playing, Prince William and Prince Harry playing the piano as, toddlers is too much for our hearts to take, Download 'Slovak Suite - At Church' on iTunes, Download 'Concerto in C K.299 for Flute and Harp (3)' on iTunes, Concerto in C K.299 for Flute and Harp (3), Download 'Concerto in C K.299 for Flute and Harp (2)' on iTunes, Concerto in C K.299 for Flute and Harp (2), Download 'Flute & Harp Concerto in C major (1)' on iTunes. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. (eds. [16] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Hous of Fame, c.1380. Flutes may have any number of pipes or tubes, though one is the most common number. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany. The Western concert flute, a descendant of the medieval German flute, is a transverse treble flute that is closed at the top. [25] The five-holed flute has a V-shaped mouthpiece and is made from a vulture wing bone. Vitezslav Novak "[9] The Indian bamboo cross flute, Bansuri, was sacred to Krishna, and he is depicted in Hindu art with the instrument. There are five main instrument families: strings, woodwind, brass, keyboards, and percussion. Other articles where Flute family is discussed: wind instrument: Classification: In edge instruments (or flutes), an airstream directed against a sharp edge sets an adjoining air column within a tube into regular pulsations, producing sound. When a single instrument is played by itself it is called a solo. The Korean flute, called the daegeum, 대금, is a large bamboo transverse flute used in traditional Korean music. In China there are many varieties of dizi (笛子), or Chinese flute, with different sizes, structures (with or without a resonance membrane) and number of holes (from 6 to 11) and intonations (different keys). "A Dictionary for the Modern Flutist", 2009, Lanham, Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press. String Family Worksheet 2 Instruments whose sounds are produced by stretched strings belong to the string family. Flutes are the earliest known identifiable musical instruments, as paleolithic examples with hand-bored holes have been found. [34] [6], Historians have found the bamboo flute has a long history as well, especially China and India. The oldest written sources reveal the Chinese were using the kuan (a reed instrument) and hsio (or xiao, an end-blown flute, often of bamboo) in the 12th-11th centuries b.c., followed by the chi (or ch'ih) in the 9th century b.c. [15] Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare (to blow, inflate) have been pronounced "phonologically impossible" or "inadmissable". Commonly seen flutes in the modern Chinese orchestra are the bangdi (梆笛), qudi (曲笛), xindi (新笛), and dadi (大笛). "Armenia §I: Folk Music, 3: Epics", in, earliest known identifiable musical instruments, "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann", "Brookhaven Lab Expert Helps Date Flute Thought to be Oldest Playable Musical Instrument, Bone flute found in China at 9,000-year-old Neolithic site", "The Development of Flutes in North America", "Ancient Chinese Musical Instrument's Depicted On Some Of The Early Monuments In The Museum", University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, "Archeologists discover ice age dwellers' flute", "The early development of music. The alto flute is a type of Western concert flute, a musical instrument in the woodwind family. Most modern concert flutes are made of silver, but this wasn't always the case: instruments dating back around 40,000 years were made of bone or hollowed wood. [47] In two different sets of blind listening, no flute was correctly identified in a first listening, and in a second, only the silver flute was identified. [2][3] While the oldest flutes currently known were found in Europe, Asia too has a long history with the instrument that has continued into the present day. [49], Two main varieties of Indian flutes are currently used. Lower members of the flute family include the G alto and C bass flutes that are used occasionally, and are pitched a perfect fourth and an octave below the concert flute, respectively. Find out Musical instrument in the lute family Answers. When we talk about musical instruments, we often talk about them as being part of a family. Another division is between side-blown (or transverse) flutes, such as the Western concert flute, piccolo, fife, dizi and bansuri; and end-blown flutes, such as the ney, xiao, kaval, danso, shakuhachi, Anasazi flute and quena. But not every instrument fits neatly into a group. Flute artefacts made of bone and dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed. The Hindu God Lord Krishna is traditionally considered a master of the bamboo flute. [14], Today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist[17] or flautist[18] or simply a flute player. One of the oldest instruments on the island, it bears close resemblance to end-blown flutes found in Southeast Asia and particularly Indonesia, where it is known as the suling, suggesting the predecessor to the sodina was carried to Madagascar in outrigger canoes by the island's original settlers emigrating from Borneo. Print instantly, or sync to our free PC, web and mobile apps. The Indian flutes are very simple compared to the Western counterparts; they are made of bamboo and are keyless. History Aside from the human voice, flutes are the earliest recorded musical instruments. With most flutes, the musician blows directly across the edge of the mouthpiece, with 1/4 of their bottom lip covering the embouchure hole. Still, some more experienced players can play up to an octave higher than that! There are two main types of woodwind instruments: flutes and reed instruments (otherwise called reed pipes). Indeed, up until around the middle of the eighteenth century (the era of Baroque music), the word "flute" was commonly used to … It is pitched in C, four octaves below the concert flute (and three octaves below the bass flute, two octaves below the contrabass flute, and one octave below the double contrabass flute). [3], The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. Musical instruments have been created in many shapes and sizes to make distinctive sounds. Flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy (flautista, itself from flauto), like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Libretto Flute/Piccolo ALL-INCLUSIVE Care Kit: Cleaning swab + Dust Brush + Cleaning Cloth + Grease, Handy bag, Great to Extend Life of your Flute! The size and placement of tone holes, key mechanism, and fingering system used to produce the notes in the flute's range were evolved from 1832 to 1847 by Theobald Boehm and greatly improved the instrument's dynamic range and intonation over its predecessors. The flute's smaller cousin, the piccolo, plays an octave higher, making it one of the highest instruments in the orchestra. "[11] The end-blown flute began to be seen in illustration in the 11th century. The flute has circular tone holes larger than the finger holes of its baroque predecessors. Other sizes of flutes and piccolos are used from time to time. Flute A small, cylindrical woodwind instrument, usually made of silver, that is held sideways to the mouth. The first evidence of simple transverse flutes with only a few holes was in Etruscan carvings in the 4thto 1stcenturies BC. The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. 3. Simple wooden flutes with … The alto flute is a transposing instrument, meaning that music written for it is in a different pitch than it's actual sound. The earliest written reference to a flute is from a Sumerian-language cuneiform tablet dated to c. 2600–2700 BCE. The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Vol. 10pm - 1am, Slovak Suite - At Church [51], In 1998 Bharata Natya Shastra Sarana Chatushtai, Avinash Balkrishna Patwardhan developed a methodology to produce perfectly tuned flutes for the ten 'thatas' currently present in Indian Classical Music.[52]. INSTRUMENTS IN THE FLUTE FAMILY . A study in which professional flutists were blindfolded could find no significant differences between flutes made from a variety of metals. Judith Cohen, "Review of 'Music in Ancient Israel/Palestine: Archaeological, Written, and Comparative Sources', by Joachim Braun". Buchanan, Donna A. [54] An image of the most celebrated contemporary sodina flutist, Rakoto Frah (d. 2001), was featured on the local currency. The tube of the alto flute is considerably thicker and longer than a standard C … Instrument Families. A recorder can be distinguished from other duct flutes by the presence of a thumb-hole for the upper hand and seven finger-holes: three for the upper hand and four for the lower. Which of the following instruments are not string instruments. Open-ended flutes such as the concert flute and the recorder have more harmonics, and thus more flexibility for the player, and brighter timbres. It has many crosswords divided into different worlds and groups. The alto flute is notated a fourth above its actual sound. Shop our newest and most popular sheet music such as "Songs of a Wayfarer: IV. In China, a playable bone flute was discovered, about 9000 years old. In an orchestra, musicians sit together in these family groupings. The pictures below include some of the instruments in each musical family. Pahlevanian, Alina. By varying the air pressure, a flutist can also change the pitch by causing the air in the flute to resonate at a harmonic rather than the fundamental frequency without opening or closing any of the holes.[44]. [1] A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flautist, flutist or, less commonly, fluter or flutenist. Musical instrument in the lute family. The Japanese flute, called the fue, 笛 (hiragana: ふえ), encompasses a large number of musical flutes from Japan, include the end-blown shakuhachi and hotchiku, as well as the transverse gakubue, komabue, ryūteki, nōkan, shinobue, kagurabue and minteki. Min-Ad: Israel Studies in Musicology Online. Prior to this, the South Indian flute had only seven finger holes, with the fingering standard developed by Sharaba Shastri, of the Palladam school, at the beginning of the 20th century. The flutist changes the pitch of the sound produced by opening and closing holes in the body of the instrument, thus changing the effective length of the resonator and its corresponding resonant frequency. The Ancient Summarians, Egyptians and Greeks were all known to use flutes, as depicted in early carvings however these were all front-blown flutes (similar to the recorder), rather than the transverse (side-blown) flute we know today. The hyperbass flute is the largest and lowest instrument in the flute family. The flute is the oldest known instrument in the world. An organ pipe may be either open or closed, depending on the sound desired. Some say it is both! Flutes can be played with several different air sources. 2001. Each world has more than 20 groups with 5 puzzles each. 95 $19.99 $19.99 However, this has been disputed. A selection of historic flutes from around the world at, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 19:50. Technically speaking, a range of instruments are members of the flute family, thanks to the way they are played, including whistles, recorders, and ocarinas - they all involve blowing air across an opening to create a sound. Simpson, J. The standard concert flute is pitched in C and has a range of three octaves starting from middle C or one half step lower when a B foot is attached. Usually in D, wooden transverse flutes were played in European classical music mainly in the period from the early 18th century to the early 19th century. While the most famous size is the 'treble' flute, this instrument also comes in alto and bass sizes - which are much bigger, and produce a lower sound. It is characterized by its distinct, mellow tone in the lower portion of its range. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general. One peculiar feature of the Chinese flute is the use of a resonance membrane mounted on one of the holes that vibrates with the air column inside the tube. It is not unusual for a performer who plays the flute to switch to the piccolo, alto flute, or bass flute. CodyCross is a famous newly released game which is developed by Fanatee. As such the instrument is often indicated as baroque flute. (2001). The flue pipes of organs, which are acoustically similar to duct flutes, are blown by bellows or fans. It is a tube with one open end and one capped end. This membrane is called a di mo, which is usually a thin tissue paper. One of those scales is named embūbum, which is an Akkadian word for "flute". Flutes made history in records and artworks starting in the Zhou dynasty. These are known as fipple flutes. [46] Critical variables affecting this acoustic impedance include: chimney length (hole between lip-plate and head tube), chimney diameter, and radii or curvature of the ends of the chimney and any designed restriction in the "throat" of the instrument, such as that in the Japanese Nohkan Flute. Posted by krist on 18 March 2017, 5:41 pm. Gradually marginalized by the Western concert flute in the 19th century, baroque flutes were again played from the late 20th century as part of the historically informed performance practice. The player of a side-blown flute uses a hole on the side of the tube to produce a tone, instead of blowing on an end of the tube. It gives the flute a bright sound. The term "flute" was originally applied both to pipe instruments held sideways and pipe instruments held vertically. Flutes are also mentioned in a recently translated tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem whose development spanned the period of approximately 2100–600 BCE. 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