Meredith McCoy: I’m Doctor Meredith McCoy, Assistant Professor of American Studies and History at Carleton College. So when Spaniards first came to North America, we have to remember that, 1492 is when Columbus set sail, but it’s also the year that marks the end of the Reconquista, which is Christian Spain’s centuries-long fight to claim all of the Iberian Peninsula for the Christian kingdoms. European colonies, like Virginia and South Carolina, New England, even in New Mexico, they’re beginning to be strongholds of European settlement and pushing out Native people. Meredith McCoy: Yeah, that’s absolutely right. Additional music is by Chris Zabriskie. It may come into contact and kind of reform itself. For me as an Indigenous person thinking about how we talk to students about histories of violence against Indigenous peoples, there is so much trauma that’s embedded in those histories. So here’s where I think it’s appropriate to talk about the Yamasees’ war. They’re facing severe land loss, severe population devastation, and in order to make sure that their people survive, they’re having to shift their understandings of what enslavement means and how they participate in this very capitalistic notion of enslavement that Europeans are bringing with them. So a successful war party would take home captives and the captives as a whole would really face different fates. One of the things that we know happened from very early historical interactions is that sometimes these war captives were gifted to other Indigenous leaders during diplomacy or to Europeans. It’s not one thing; it changes all the time. Meredith McCoy: Thank you for that. Compiled - The Center for Racial Justice in Education Teaching Approaches. For example, the mission system would be one form of colonialism that has to do with converting Indigenous people and assimilating them into a Europeanized, Christianized lifestyle. It’s about social reproduction, it’s about warfare and justice. In Teaching Hard History: American Slavery, the SPLC’s Teaching Tolerance project last year detailed the ways in which schools are failing to adequately teach this history and how Americans lack a basic knowledge of the fundamental role slavery played in shaping the country.. When we see the Spanish coming to the Americas, again they’re coming right off of that Reconquista. Teaching Culturally Sensitive Holidays – Sherry Posnick-Goodwin (California Teachers Associations) Teaching Thanksgiving in a Socially Responsible Way – Teaching Tolerance; Teaching Thanksgiving from the Perspective of Native Americans – Christina “Krea” Gomez ; Lesson Plans/ Study Guides. To understand this, we really have to go back to the fact that for a long time, Indigenous people had taken war captives. So we see the ways that this concept that starts as a European religious idea, comes and travels to the United States and its origins and becomes this really foundational and shaping idea that impacts everything else about how the legal system functions for Indigenous peoples in the United States today. European concepts of bondage transformed the way Native nations interacted with each other, resulted in the enslavement and death of millions of Indigenous people, and sparked widespread resistance by Native nations. But what these things have in common, even though they’re coming out of these very different colonial contexts, is that Native societies are reaching a saturation point where there are settler colonial societies. Native American Heritage Month As Native American Heritage Month comes to a close, be sure to continue incorporating this history in your curriculum and support Native American students year-round. Hasan K. Jeffries: There’s so much history there. They could also be a symbol of prestige and power or part of the expansion of a chief’s social network. So these processes are actually much longer. These invaders and settlers brought established principles and practices of human enslavement with them, along with their insatiable desire for free labor. They can explode and kill someone. That there existed in the 21st century, an African nation that had been untouched by the scourge of transatlantic slavery and the ravages of European colonialism, and as a result, had developed technological capabilities far in advance of anything that existed in the Western world. It really varies quite a bit. One is that that person could be executed as vengeance for the death of a loved one. Christina Snyder: Absolutely. It was action packed, suspenseful, cleverly written, visually magnificent and wonderfully acted. “We should know … I will say that, overall when we think about what Indigenous leaders are facing, there’s devastating population loss. Christina Snyder is the McCabe Greer professor of the American Civil War Era at Penn State University. Why is it that Indigenous peoples really feel that they have to adopt these European notions of the slave trade? I think the best metaphor probably is to think about as a kind of virus that mutates as it migrates. They’re more familiar with servitude and slavery. Having learned from Christina about the philosophical differences and the legal origins of these tensions between European enslavement and Indigenous enslavement, including, for example, that Indigenous enslavement was not racial, that it usually was not trans-generational, that it was not grounded in a legal framework, then I wanted to know about the long-term impacts and the actual logistics on a day-to-day basis. Hernando de Soto and Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, they go on similar kinds of expeditions in the late 1530s, early 1540s, and they kidnap hundreds of Indigenous people, mostly women. That they’re somehow fundamentally different from their Christian neighbors. So the kind of traffic that we think about in the Atlantic is really complicated by our including Native peoples in that story. Hasan K. Jeffries: I think we have to keep at the forefront of our mind when trying to understand the difficult decisions that native people are making. So Indian traders start to beat and abuse Yamasees. So on the second voyage to the Caribbean, he takes captives. So we think, these numbers are very hard to pin down. Some of them are even sold to places like the Philippines, part of the Spanish empire at that time, or sold to the Caribbean in exchange for African captives. This podcast is a resource for navigating those challenges so teachers and students can develop a deeper understanding of the history and legacy of American slavery. It was really about addressing a balance that had been lost through a relative who had been killed. Which you can think of as the border between Georgia and South Carolina. Christina Snyder: It is incredibly important in the Southeast in particular. Servitude exists in their own country. Hasan K. Jeffries: That seems to hint at and speak to the ways in which Indigenous people resisted the encroachment of colonizers and resisted the enslavement of their own. So, they’re really starting to lose control over their participation in this trade and to see how abusive and how destructive it can be. How do we understand the role of Columbus in a history of enslavement of Indigenous peoples? How is that working, in terms of Indigenous peoples are being sent to Europe as enslaved people at the same time that African people are being brought to what’s currently the United States as enslaved people? If you don't have an account, I am the Blood of the Conqueror, I am the Blood of the Conquered, Requerimiento: The Spanish Requirement of 1513, Precolumbian Native Peoples and Technology, The Atlantic Slave Trade what too few textbooks told you, Social Studies & Multicultural Education, University of Washington-Bothell. Meredith McCoy: That has so many ripple effects out across Indian law. That’s partially because the colonial situation is so different. In the Southeast, the consequence for the Yamasees is really devastating in the sense that South Carolinians and their allies kill most Yamasees. Meredith will be joining me for this season of Teaching Hard History: American Slavery. Earlier this month, Teaching Tolerance expanded those recommendations into a first-of-its-kind framework for introducing the subject to elementary students. So to begin, I asked Christina, how have interactions between European settlers and Indigenous peoples would actually work on the ground. Actually, 200 of them died on the voyage, which was overcrowded, many people were ill, but of the survivors, he sold them in Spain. Meredith McCoy: There is so much history to cover. The British really dominate parts of the Eastern Seaboard by then. Welcome aboard. Welcome to Lessons of Our Land, an innovative curriculum that enables Pre-K through grade 12 teachers to easily incorporate Native American stories, lessons and games into regular classroom instruction. So it’s a form of colonialism that imagines Native people as being absent, disappearing, as having no role in the future of their society. Christina Snyder: Many Indigenous nations actually do try to maintain traditional ideas as much as they can in terms of how native people are engaging with the warfare around them. What happens is that these traders, in order to satisfy those debts, start to kidnap Yamasees or people that the Yamasees wanted to adopt, so that is captives who had maybe been taken from elsewhere, but that the Yamasees want to incorporate into their own society. Black Panther, the movie, did not disappoint. To continue, log into your Teaching Tolerance account. So I asked Christina to explain how captivity and bondage were understood and practiced within Indigenous societies before Europeans arrived on the continent. I’m particularly excited about Teaching Hard History and being involved in the histories of Indigenous enslavement. So basically the idea of someone who has not been incorporated into a kinship network, that person is permanently an outsider and they’re thought of as being kinless. Yet as European expansion, as settler expansion occurs across the continent, we see the same dynamics play out over and over again as Europeans are pushing not only their own bodies and their own consumption of Indigenous lands and resources, but also these really toxic ideas about the commodification of human beings out with them across the continent. Since that, we have really focused on how dynamic slavery was, how many different groups of people it affected, where it was? THE MOMENT. It starts people thinking about the lives of African Indigenous people on their own terms. They are trying to survive. In early December 2016, Teaching Tolerance contracted with Survey USA, a highly rated national polling firm, to conduct an online survey of 1,000 American high school seniors. So essentially if we look at these different colonizing powers, they too have their own cultures and histories, but they’re beginning to form a more coherent ideology that justifies bondage. Often disease that’s operating in tandem with warfare, either from Native neighbors or from colonizers and the violence of slavery. They really push deeply into the Mississippi Valley, eventually into Louisiana. Meredith McCoy: I think that would be such a brilliant way for teachers to think about how these changes are occurring on both continents with their students. Christina Snyder: They’re really two ways in which Europeans begin to trade in Indigenous slaves. In this story, Native parents and educators share examples of how educators and schools still get it wrong—and the steps they can take to fix their mistakes. If we look at that, and we think about it in terms of the broader effects of colonization, it really gives us a sense of the devastation. 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